- Students will understand that tissues make up different systems in our bodies that perform different functions for our bodies to live.
- Tissues that are together and work for one purpose are called organs.
- A system is when a group of organs function together to do a job.
- All body systems are interdependent on each other for our bodies to function and live.
- Students will understand that the respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into our bodies and eliminating waste through breathing.
- Respiration is the exchange of gases in the lungs.
i) All cells take in oxygen for energy. All cells give off, or eliminate, carbon dioxide and water as waste.
ii) Plants are our partners in gas exchange. Plants need carbon dioxide for energy and give off oxygen.
- The major organs of the respiratory system are: lungs, nose, trachea and diaphragm.
i) Air is inhaled and exhaled through the nose and mouth and drawn into and out of the lungs by the diaphragm.
ii) The lungs are full of tubes called bronchioles and balloon-like sacks called alveoli that carry air throughout the lungs.
iii) Oxygen and carbon dioxide gas is exchanged in the alveoli of the lungs.
iv) The average person takes 21,600 breathes in a day.
- Students will understand the importance of keeping the respiratory system healthy.
- Smoking is very damaging to the lungs because it puts poisonous chemicals right into your lungs.
- Cold and flu germs can be spread through the respiratory system.
i) Colds and flus create excess mucus in the respiratory system which makes it hard to breath.
- Exercise helps the body increase the amount of oxygen it takes in and delivers to all cells.
- Students will learn how to safely cough and sneeze to keep from spreading cold and flu germs.
- Students will learn the importance washing hands to keep from picking up or spreading germs.
- Students will understand the purpose of the circulatory system is to move blood through the body to spread oxygen and nutrients to as well as remove wastes from.
- The major organs of circulatory system are: heart and blood vessel super-highway.
i) The adult heart pumps nearly 2,000 gallons of blood every single day.
- Students will understand the parts of the heart and what each structure does.
- The heart is made up of the cardiac muscle that contracts and relaxes to push blood through it and the blood vessels of the body.
- The heart has 4 chambers, 2 atria and 2 ventricles, that blood passes through during each beat of the heart.
- The heart takes in blood from the body and the lungs. The heart pumps blood to the body and to the lungs.
- Valves in the heart control the direction of blood flow in the heart that only goes in one direction.
i) The valves of the heart are: the tricuspid and mitral.
- Students will understand the different types of blood vessels and how they function.
- The three main types of blood vessels are: arteries, veins and capillaries.
i) The pulmonary artery carries waste-filled blood from the heart to the lungs where the gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place.
ii) The aorta carries oxygen-filled blood that just came from the lungs to rest of the body.
iii) Capillaries carry blood to each cell in the body.
iv) Oxygen and carbon dioxide and other wastes pass from the capillaries to the cells and back again.
v) Veins carry waste-filled blood including carbone dioxide from the body to the heart.
vi) Arteries carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cells of the body.
- Students will understand how blood has different parts and nourishes every cell in the body.
- Red blood cells carry oxygen to each cell and pick up carbon dioxide from each cell to take back to the lungs.
i) Red blood cells are made in bone marrow, the liver and the spleen.
ii) Red blood cells live about 120 days are being constantly replaced.
- White blood cells are part of the bodies defense system against germs and fight infections.
- Plasma is a clear liquid in blood containing water, salt, protein, sugars and oxygen.
- Platelets are an agent in blood that work with others tissues to heal wounds.
- Students will learn that a good diet and exercise is the best way to keep the circulatory system healthy.
- Eating fatty foods can cause blood vessels to become clogged which can hurt other organs in the body.
- A good diet includes eating fruits, vegetables, low-fat meats, beans and whole grain breads..
- Drink 8-10 glasses of water a day.
- Exercise 60 minutes daily to strengthen heart and increase oxygen in the body.
- Discuss in class how the highway system is like the blood vessels and circulatory system in the body. Then have students draw, write or act out, using the names of the different blood vessels, chambers and valves, starting from the heart, the journey of blood through the circulatory system. You can also have students describe what the blood does in each organ as it passes through the system.
- Create a compare/contrast chart for healthy foods and unhealthy foods. Have students suggest foods for each and discuss why foods are healthy and why foods are unhealthy. Extend by having students write a paragraph about their favorite food.