The phylum arthropda includes animals without backbones (invertebrates). Arthropoda organisms have legs that bend at the joint, sectioned bodies, and an exoskeleton.
The phylum Cnideria includes members that have special "stinging cells" that help protect them from other animals.
The phylum Echinodermata is made up of members with spiny skin.
The phylum mollusca is made of mostly members with shells.
The phylum porifera is made up of animals like sponges.
Several other phyla are made up of different types of worms.
The Plant Kingdom
- Students will understand scientists use classification to group living things.
- Students will learn the Classification System divides living things into groups by their similarities and differences.
- Students will know classification starts with the largest group of organisms and works it's way down to the smallest group.
- Students will observe classifying living things makes it easier for scientists to find and share information.
- Scientists around the world can use the common scientific name for organisms instead of the name given by their native language.
- Students will learn the mnemonic device "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti" to remember the 7 levels of classification: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
- Students will know the five kingdoms in the classification system.
- The Animal Kingdom
- Eats other organisms, has many cells, can move from place to place at some time during its life.
The animal kingdom is usually divided into 16 phyla.
- The phylum chordata includes animals with backbones (vertebrates): fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
- Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are all cold-blooded vertebrates.
Fish live in water. They use gills to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
- Amphibians start life in water, but as they become adults, their bodies change to allow them to live on land.
- Reptiles have dry, scaly skin and have lungs to breathe air.
Birds and mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates.
- Birds have wings and feathers, and most can fly.
- Mammals usually have hair on their bodies and feed milk to their babies.
Plants that don't make seeds form tiny cells called spores that grow into new plants.
Most plants belong to the group that makes seeds.
Make their own food:
- plants use water, carbon dioxide, and energy from the sun to make their own food — a type of sugar.
- Vascular plants have special cells that act like a tube and carry water and minerals from the plant's roots to the rest of the plant. These tube like cells also carry food made in the leaves to the rest of the plant.
- Nonvascular plants like moss must be near water, because water from the outside has to pass directly into the plant's cells.
- Scientists further divide plants by the way they reproduce.
- Vascular plants are divided into two groups — plants that make seeds, and plants that don't.
Plants have many cells.
Plant cells have a cell wall and a nucleus.
Plants are not able to move on their own from place to place.
The Fungus Kingdom
- This group is further divided between plants that make flowers and those that don't.
- Seed plants that don't make flowers produce their seeds inside cones.
The Protist Kingdom
- Have many cells
- Cannot move from place to place
- Absorb their food from other living things
- Mushrooms are fungi
- Mold, mildew, and yeast are fungi
The Monera Kingdom
- Have only one cell, with a nucleus
- Can make sugar from the sun's energy
- Some get food by absorbing from their surroundings, or capturing food.
- Algae is a protist
Students will know that organisms in each kingdom share basic characteristics like how they get food, whether or not or how they move, how they are built (how many cells they have).
Students will understand that cells are the building blocks of life and come in many shapes and sizes.
Students will understand bacteria are part of the Moneran Kingdom. They are the smallest, simplest living things.
- The smallest of the kingdoms
- Some can move and they make or get their own food.
- Most trap the sun's energy to make sugar for food.
- Have only one cell with no nucleus
Students will learn scientists have recently discovered special Monerans that live on the ocean floor. Instead of using sunlight to make food, they use chemical reactions from volcanic vents to get energy to make food.
- Bacteria have a cell wall, but no nucleus.
- Bacteria are found everywhere on earth.
- Some bacteria cause illnesses.
- Some bacteria are beneficial.
- Experiment with Gels: Gels are pieces of colored plastic used by the entertainment industry to achieve certain lighting effects. They work by allowing only specific wavelengths of light to pass through them. For example, a red gel only lets red light to pass. Pass out a se of gels (blue, red, and green), clipboard, and some paper to each student or group. Ask the student look at certain objects in the classroom or on the campus through each of the gels. Have the write down what they see and explain why the objects appear the way they do. For example, one might say that a red apple appears black through a blue gel because the red apple reflects only red light (it absorbs all the other colors), but the blue gel only lets blue light pass through it; so no light is being reflected back to the eye (the absence of light = black). Have the students discuss their findings with the class.
View Teacher's Guide PDF (F.P.O.)